Most people will experience a skin rash at some point in their lives. Identifying the signs of certain skin disorders, such as eczema and measles, can help you seek appropriate care.
While most rashes are not serious, some can be dangerous and require immediate medical attention. This article will explore the ten most common skin rashes, including their causes, symptoms, and treatments.
What Is A Skin Rash?
A skin rash is an inflammation of the top layer of your skin or mucous membrane. There are various causes of skin rashes, such as allergies and infections. There are also many different types of skin rashes, including:
Eczema is a non-contagious skin rash without a cure, but by taking medication or avoiding irritants, symptoms can be managed. Kids who suffer from eczema may outgrow it on or before their 10th birthday. However, others may continue to experience symptoms at different points in their lives.
What Causes Eczema?
You stand a higher chance of suffering from eczema if your family has a history of allergies or asthma. Medical experts aren’t clear on what exactly is responsible for eczema. Some believe it is your immune system’s response to something irritating.
Take a look at a few reasons which may be responsible for Eczema
- Soaps or detergents
- Rough or coarse cloth material
- Respiratory infections
How Is Eczema Diagnosed?
Finding eczema isn’t restricted to one procedure. Some doctors may diagnose you by only looking at your skin and probing you with a few questions. Other doctors may order you to take some allergy tests. This is because many people with eczema also suffer from allergies. Therefore, the allergy test will check for irritants.
Since eczema comes with many itchy sensations, the recommended treatment may focus more on preventing itching. Your doctor may also recommend body lotions and creams to keep your dry and itchy skin moist. Hydrocortisone cream and antihistamine have been known to be helpful.
2. Diaper Rash
This is a type of contact dermatitis in which there is an inflammation of the skin in the area of the body covered by a diaper. The irritants responsible for this skin disorder are urine, faeces… leading to the breakdown of the skin.
Diaper rash is most common in the first 2 years of life. However, a person of any age who routinely wears diapers can also be affected.
What Causes Diaper Rash?
- A wet or messy diaper is left for too long.
- Your baby’s skin rubs against the diaper.
- The diaper fits too tight or doesn’t fit properly.
- Bacterial infection
Diagnosis Of Diaper Rash
When it comes to your baby’s health, don’t hesitate to seek advice from a medical practitioner. The doctor may need details on the brand of diaper, baby lotion and other household items with which your baby comes in contact. Note that diaper rashes caused by yeast infection may occur when your baby takes antibiotics.
Diaper Rash Treatment
The medical doctor may prescribe topical creams and ointments to treat diaper rash. These creams and ointment include:
- Hydrocortisone to reduce swelling.
- Zinc oxide
- Antifungal creams
Chickenpox is an itchy rash with small fluid-filled blisters caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). People who haven’t suffered from chickenpox or who haven’t been vaccinated against the disease are more susceptible to contracting it.
What Causes Chickenpox?
- When you come in direct contact with an infected person.
- When you inhale infected droplets in the air.
- Mother can infect her baby in the womb.
How Is Chickenpox Diagnosed?
Since chickenpox causes a rash to appear on your body, doctors find enough evidence to diagnose. In the situation whereby doubts arise, laboratory tests can be done to figure out the rash’s cause.
- For mild cases, your doctor may advise you to stay home and rest to feel better.
- To reduce the duration and severity of chickenpox, your doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs.
Scabies occurs when tiny eight-legged mites called Sarcoptes scabiei invade and make your skin their new home. While making themselves comfortable, they dig into your skin to lay their eggs after mating on your skin surface. The digging into your skin causes the formation of rash with an itchy sensation.
What Causes Scabies?
Due to the activity of Sarcoptes scabiei on your skin, your body will react by developing a red, itchy rash.
Also, when you have direct contact with furniture, clothing and bedding of an infected person, there is a high chance for the infestation to spread over to you.
How Is Scabies Diagnosed?
A thorough examination of your skin diagnoses scabies. The physician will look for signs of mites and their burrows. Samples may also be taken from your skin to examine under a microscope.
There are several creams and lotions to eliminate the infestation of mites. Your doctor may advise you to apply the medication all over your body. Your doctor may also advise that your close contacts receive scabies treatment even if there are no visible signs of infestation.
Measles is a highly infectious disease.
What Causes Measles?
Measles is caused by the rubeola virus, a member of the paramyxovirus family. Once you come in direct contact with an infected person or through infected droplets in the air, you may fall ill.
How Is Measles Diagnosed?
Your doctor can confirm measles through physical examination of your skin rash and looking out for other symptoms associated with the disease. Once your doctor suspects you of having measles, you will be required to take a blood test.
Measles has no specific treatment. Symptoms usually disappear within 7 to 10 days. Your doctor may recommend the following:
- Acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce feverish conditions.
- Vitamin A supplement.
- Staying hydrated.
- Getting adequate rest to boost the immune system.
6. Heat Rash
This is the inflammation of the skin that occurs when the sweat glands are blocked, and the sweat produced can’t get to the surface of the skin to evaporate.
What Causes Heat Rash?
- Putting on tight clothing that prevents sweat from evaporating.
- Using a cream or lotion that can clog your sweat glands.
- Wearing heavy clothing to keep warm, but this may prevent you from sweating.
- Some medications may give you a heat rash.
How Is Heat Rash Diagnosed?
The health care professional will perform a physical examination on the skin involved before making a diagnosis.
Heat Rash Treatment
Heat rash goes off on its own once the skin cools. But if your sweat gland gets infected, antibiotics may be prescribed. Note that calamine lotion may also help deal with the prickly sensation of the rash.
Ringworm is a fungal infection of the skin, also known as dermatophytosis.
What Causes Ringworm?
- Direct contact with soil harbouring Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton
- Direct contact with an infected animal or human, the infection will spread.
How Is Ringworm Diagnosed?
The doctor may request that the infected person gets a skin biopsy done or a KOH exam.
Depending on the ringworm infection’s severity, the doctor may recommend medications and lifestyle changes to treat the infection. Some topical medications like antifungal creams, ointments or gels may be used.
The infected person may also be asked to disinfect their surroundings by washing bedding and clothes daily and wearing loose clothing around affected areas.
8. Scarlet Fever
Scarlet fever is an infection that can develop in people who have strep throat. Children between the ages of 5 and 15 years are mostly affected by scarlet fever. The most evident sign of scarlet fever is the presence of a rash.
What Causes Scarlet Fever?
The bacteria causing this infection is a streptococcus group that can live in the mouth and nasal passages.
How Is Scarlet Fever Diagnosed?
The doctor will examine the following
- The condition of the child’s throat, tonsils and tongue.
- Check if the lymph nodes on the child’s neck are enlarged.
- The appearance and texture of the rashes.
A throat swab will be ordered if health professional suspects that strep is the cause of the child’s illness.
Scarlet Fever Treatment
Antibiotics are used to treat scarlet fever due to the drug’s ability to kill bacteria and boost the body’s immune system in fighting off the bacteria, causing the infection.
Children under 2 years of age are most susceptible to contracting Roseola.
What Causes Roseola?
The human herpesvirus 6 or sometimes human herpesvirus 7 causes roseola.
How Is Roseola Diagnosed?
Roseola has a tell-tale rash, which doctors use to confirm their diagnosis. Sometimes, a blood test may be ordered.
There isn’t a specific treatment for roseola. However, your doctor may recommend medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce feverish conditions. Antiviral drugs may also be recommended to treat the infection in people with weakened immunity.
Candidiasis is a yeast infection, also referred to as thrush. The organism responsible is the quiet Candida Albicans, which we all carry on our skin, in our mouth, and gut. Although a rare occurrence, Candidiasis may become life-threatening if it reaches the bloodstream or vital organs.
Causes Of Candidiasis
- Overusing antibiotics.
- Cancer treatments weaken the immune system and allow the yeast to flourish.
- Birth control pills may increase one’s chances of getting vaginal candidiasis.
- Tight clothing and poor hygiene.
How Is Candidiasis Diagnosed?
The doctor will examine the affected area and consider any history of diabetes, cancer, HIV or chronic diseases.
The doctor may prescribe antifungal cream or pills to treat the infection on the skin. For vaginal yeast infection, antifungal medication may be administered directly into the private area, while others may be administered through the mouth.